Differentiating between ortho- and para-quinone surface groups on graphite, glassy carbon, and carbon nanotubes using organic and inorganic voltammetric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy labels

Charles A. Thorogood, Gregory G. Wildgoose, Alison Crossley, Robert M. J. Jacobs, John H. Jones, Richard G. Compton

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53 Citations (Scopus)


Ortho-Quinones can be differentiated from other oxygen-contg. surface functional groups on the surfaces of graphite, glassy C, bamboo-like, and hollow-tube multiwalled C nanotubes and single-walled C nanotubes by chem. labeling them with either an inorg. hexaamminechromium(III) complex or org. 1,2-phenylenediamine derivs. Both types of labels can be obsd. using cyclic voltammetry or by XPS and used to quantify the nos. and relative distribution of ortho-quinones from other oxygen-contg. species on the surface including electroactive para-quinones which are not labeled. Labeling of ortho-quinones with 1,2-phenylenediamine derivs. gave phenazine-like adducts on the graphitic surface which have a distinct voltammetry particularly from that of the underivatized para-quinones. [on SciFinder(R)]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4964-4974
Number of pages11
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • phenylenediamine labeling differentiation ortho quinone surface
  • differentiating ortho para quinone surface graphite glassy carbon nanotube
  • chromium ammine complex labeling differentiation ortho quinone surface
  • cyclic voltammetry XPS labeling ortho quinone surface differentiation

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