Direct regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by the PRR-associated kinase BIK1 during plant immunity

Yasuhiro Kadota, Jan Sklenar, Paul Derbyshire, Lena Stransfeld, Shuta Asai, Vardis Ntoukakis, Jonathan Dg Jones, Ken Shirasu, Frank Menke, Alexandra Jones, Cyril Zipfel

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648 Citations (Scopus)


The rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a conserved signaling output in immunity across kingdoms. In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that RBOHD exists in complex with the receptor kinases EFR and FLS2, which are the PRRs for bacterial EF-Tu and flagellin, respectively. The plasma-membrane-associated kinase BIK1, which is a direct substrate of the PRR complex, directly interacts with and phosphorylates RBOHD upon PAMP perception. BIK1 phosphorylates different residues than calcium-dependent protein kinases, and both PAMP-induced BIK1 activation and BIK1-mediated phosphorylation of RBOHD are calcium independent. Importantly, phosphorylation of these residues is critical for the PAMP-induced ROS burst and antibacterial immunity. Our study reveals a rapid regulatory mechanism of a plant RBOH, which occurs in parallel with and is essential for its paradigmatic calcium-based regulation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-55
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Cell
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2014


  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cell Line
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Flagellin
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Ligands
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • NADPH Oxidase
  • Peptide Elongation Factor Tu
  • Phosphorylation
  • Plant Immunity
  • Plant Stomata
  • Protein Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tobacco

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