Does shared and differentiated transformational leadership predict followers' working conditions and well-being?

Karina Nielsen, Kevin Daniels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Citations (Scopus)


Transformational leadership has been widely researched and is associated with followers' performance, attitudes, and subjective well-being at the individual level. Less research has focused on transformational leadership as a group phenomenon. In a survey study (425 followers and 56 leaders), we examined how group-level and differentiated transformational leadership shape followers' perceptions of their working conditions and individual subjective well-being. There was stronger evidence that differentiated transformational leadership's relationships with indicators of well-being was mediated by perceptions of working conditions, in that 10 out of 20 tests for mediation using differentiated transformational leadership were significant, compared to just three out of 20 for group-level transformational leadership. The results suggest that transformational leadership needs to be studied as a group phenomenon considering how group-level perceptions may impact on followers' well-being and that leaders need to realize that there is an “I” in groups and addition to a “we” in groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-397
Number of pages15
JournalThe Leadership Quarterly
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012


  • Differentiated leadership
  • Group-level leadership
  • Subjective well-being
  • Transformational leadership
  • Working conditions

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