This paper analyses the dynamics of violence during civilian displacement operations. Specifically, we argue that the integration of security forces–solid command structure, monitoring of troops, and the quality of personnel–influences not only the military performance but also the level of civilian costs. That is, a highly integrated army can commit soldiers to displacement operations while minimising violence. When conducted by a partially integrated army, however, displacement operations are at risk of mass killing, pushing soldiers to remove civilians without sophisticated control. Our qualitative analysis of three major counter-guerrilla operations in South Korea provides support for our thesis.
- civilian displacement
- draining-the-sea tactic
- internal cohesion
- Korean counter-insurgency (COIN)
- principal-agent problem