Dynamic electro-thermal PV temperature and power output prediction model for any PV geometries in free-standing and BIPV systems operating under any environmental conditions

Eleni Kaplani, Socrates Kaplanis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


PV temperature significantly affects the module’s power output and final system yield, and its accurate prediction can serve the forecasting of PV power output, smart grid operations, online PV diagnostics and dynamic predictive management of Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) systems. This paper presents a dynamic PV temperature prediction model based on transient Energy Balance Equations, incorporating theoretical expressions for all heat transfer processes, natural convection, forced convection, conduction and radiation exchanges between both module sides and the environment. The algorithmic approach predicts PV temperature at the centre of the cell, the back and the front glass cover with fast convergence and serves the PV power output prediction. The simulation model is robust, predicting PV temperature with high accuracy at any environmental conditions, PV inclination, orientation, wind speed and direction, and mounting configurations, free-standing and BIPV. These, alongside its theoretical basis, ensure the model’s wide applicability and clear advantage over existing PV temperature prediction models. The model is validated for a wide range of environmental conditions, PV geometries and mounting configurations with experimental data from a sun-tracking, a fixed angle PV and a BIPV system. The deviation between predicted and measured power output for the fixed-angle and the sun-tracking PV systems was estimated at −1.4% and 1.9%, respectively. The median of the temperature difference between predicted and measured values was as low as 0.5 °C for the sun-tracking system, and for all cases, the predicted temperature profiles were closely matching the measured profiles. The PV temperature and power output predicted by this model are compared to the results produced by other well-known PV temperature models, illustrating its high predictive capacity, accuracy and robustness.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4743
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sep 2020


  • PV temperature prediction
  • electro-thermal model
  • transient energy balance equations
  • PV power prediction
  • sun-tracking PV
  • BIPV

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