This paper explores the meaning of education in contrast with ‘pedagogy’. Whereas education can be defined as ‘learning for its own sake’, pedagogy can be defined as learning oriented towards social goals. An attempt to find an adequate conceptualisation is first of all sought in Aristotle, but his concept of education is found to depend on too narrow a concept of rational activity. A more adequate conceptualisation is found in Michael Oakeshott's contrast between morality and enterprise associations. However Oakeshott's definition of education needs modifying if it is to take account of the idea of critical knowing, which is seen as crucial to any definition of education.