Effect of kidney donation on bone mineral metabolism

Thomas F. Hiemstra, Jane C. Smith, Kenneth Lim, Dihua Xu, Shreya Kulkarni, J. Andrew Bradley, Kaido Paapstel, Inez Schoenmakers, John R. Bradley, Laurie Tomlinson, Carmel M. McEniery, Ian B. Wilkinson

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Abstract

Kidney donation results in reductions in kidney function and lasting perturbations in phosphate homeostasis, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular sequelae. However, the acute effects of kidney donation on bone mineral parameters including regulators of calcium and phosphate metabolism are unknown. We conducted a prospective observational controlled study to determine the acute effects of kidney donation on mineral metabolism and skeletal health. Biochemical endpoints were determined before and after donation on days 1, 2 and 3, 6 weeks and 12 months in donors and at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 months in controls. Baseline characteristic of donors (n = 34) and controls (n = 34) were similar: age (53±10 vs 50±14 years, p = 0.33), BMI (26.3±2.89 vs 25.9±3.65, p = 0.59), systolic BP (128±13 vs 130±6 mmHg, p = 0.59), diastolic BP (80±9 vs 81±9 mmHg, p = 0.68) and baseline GFR (84.4±20.2 vs 83.6±25.2 ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.89). eGFR reduced from 84.4±20.2 to 52.3±17.5 ml/min/1.73m2 (p<0.001) by day 1 with incomplete recovery by 12 months (67.7±22.6; p = 0.002). Phosphate increased by day 1 (1.1(0.9-1.2) to 1.3(1.1-1.4) mmol/L, p <0.001) but declined to 0.8(0.8-1.0) mmol/L (p<0.001) before normalizing by 6 weeks. Calcium declined on day 1 (p = 0.003) but recovered at 6 weeks or 12 months. PTH and FGF-23 remained unchanged, but α-Klotho reduced by day 1 (p = 0.001) and remained low at 6 weeks (p = 0.02) and 1 year (p = 0.04). In this study, we conclude that kidney donation results in acute disturbances in mineral metabolism characterised by a reduced phosphate and circulating α-Klotho concentration without acute changes in the phosphaturic hormones FGF23 and PTH.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0235082
JournalPLoS One
Volume15
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2020

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