Four cultivars of winter wheat with contrasting qualities for breadmaking were selected to study the effects of environmental factors on grain protein composition and properties. They were grown in the field and under two controlled regimens designed to mimic typical “hot/dry” and “cold/wet” conditions experienced during grain development in the United Kingdom. The composition of the gluten proteins determined by SDS-PAGE and their size distribution determined by SE-HPLC were consistent with the presence of higher proportions of high Mr polymers in the two varieties with good breadmaking performance (Spark and Soissons) with limited environmental effects on these parameters. Gluten protein fractions from three of the cultivars were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and this, combined with creep measurements using a texture analyzer, showed that a conversion from ß-turns to ß-sheets occurred during extension, irrespective of the growth conditions. However, the breadmaking varieties Soissons and Spark showed greater differences related to environmental conditions than the variety Rialto, which has poorer processing quality.