The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of such proprioceptive exercise following ankle ligament injury. A systematic review of the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, AMED, the Cochrane library database and the PEDro database, in addition to unpublished literature databases was conducted to July 2011. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted to pool results from homogeneous studies. The methodological quality of the literature was reviewed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. The results indicated that there is no statistically significant difference in recurrent injury between the addition of proprioceptive exercises during the rehabilitation of patients following ankle ligament injury (p = 0.68). The addition of proprioceptive training demonstrated a significant reduction in subjective instability and functional outcomes (p < 0.05). There was no consensus on the advantages of including proprioceptive training in the rehabilitation of this population for swelling, postural sway, joint position sense, ankle range of motion or return to sport outcomes. Further study is warranted to develop the rigour of the evidence-base and to determine the optimal proprioceptive training programme following ankle ligament injury with different populations.