Effector-dependent activation and oligomerization of plant NRC class helper NLRs by sensor NLR immune receptors Rpi-amr3 and Rpi-amr1

Hee-Kyung Ahn, Xiao Lin, Andrea Carolina Olave-Achury, Lida Derevnina, Mauricio P. Contreras, Jiorgos Kourelis, Chih-Hang Wu, Sophien Kamoun, Jonathan D. G. Jones

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Plant pathogens compromise crop yields. Plants have evolved robust innate immunity that depends in part on intracellular Nucleotide-binding, Leucine rich-Repeat (NLR) immune receptors that activate defense responses upon detection of pathogen-derived effectors. Most “sensor” NLRs that detect effectors require the activity of “helper” NLRs, but how helper NLRs support sensor NLR function is poorly understood. Many Solanaceae NLRs require NRC (NLR-Required for Cell death) class of helper NLRs. We show here that Rpi-amr3, a sensor NLR from Solanum americanum, detects AVRamr3 from the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and activates oligomerization of helper NLRs NRC2 and NRC4 into high-molecular-weight resistosomes. In contrast, recognition of P. infestans effector AVRamr1 by another sensor NLR Rpi-amr1 induces formation of only the NRC2 resistosome. The activated NRC2 oligomer becomes enriched in membrane fractions. ATP-binding motifs of both Rpi-amr3 and NRC2 are required for NRC2 resistosome formation, but not for the interaction of Rpi-amr3 with its cognate effector. NRC2 resistosome can be activated by Rpi-amr3 upon detection of AVRamr3 homologs from other Phytophthora species. Mechanistic understanding of NRC resistosome formation will underpin engineering crops with durable disease resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere111484
JournalEMBO Journal
Issue number5
Early online date2 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • blue native-PAGE
  • NLR activation
  • NRC
  • plant immunity
  • Rpi-amr

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