Effects of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials

Azizah Mat Hussin, Ammar W Ashor, Inez Schoenmakers, Tom Hill, John C Mathers, Mario Siervo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: In addition to regulating calcium homoeostasis and bone health, vitamin D influences vascular and metabolic processes including endothelial function (EF) and insulin signalling. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on EF and to examine whether the effect size was modified by health status, study duration, dose, route of vitamin D administration, vitamin D status (baseline and post-intervention), body mass index (BMI), age and type of vitamin D. 

Methods: We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases from inception until March 2015 for studies meeting the following criteria: (1) RCT with adult participants, (2) vitamin D administration alone, (3) studies that quantified EF using commonly applied methods including ultrasound, plethysmography, applanation tonometry and laser Doppler. 

Results: Sixteen articles reporting data for 1177 participants were included. Study duration ranged from 4 to 52 weeks. The effect of vitamin D on EF was not significant (SMD: 0.08, 95 % CI −0.06, 0.22, p = 0.28). Subgroup analysis showed a significant improvement of EF in diabetic subjects (SMD: 0.31, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.57, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend was found for diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02; p = 0.07) and BMI (β = 0.05; p = 0.06). 

Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation did not improve EF. The significant effect of vitamin D in diabetics and a tendency for an association with BMI may indicate a role of excess adiposity and insulin resistance in modulating the effects of vitamin D on vascular function. This remains to be tested in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095–1104
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume56
Issue number3
Early online date5 Feb 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Nitric oxide
  • Flow-mediated dilation
  • Forearm blood flow
  • Pulse wave velocity
  • Cardiovascular risk

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