It is unclear what non-pharmacological interventions to prevent cognitive decline should comprise. We systematically reviewed lifestyle and psychosocial interventions that aimed to reduce cognitive decline in healthy people aged 50+, and people of any age with Subjective Cognitive Decline or Mild Cognitive Impairment. We narratively synthesised evidence, prioritising results from studies rated as at lower Risk of Bias (ROB) and assigning Centre for Evidence Based Medicine grades. We included 64 papers, describing: psychosocial (n = 12), multi-domain (n = 10), exercise (n = 36), and dietary (n = 6) interventions. We found Grade A evidence that over 4+ months: aerobic exercise twice weekly had a moderate effect on global cognition in people with/ without MCI; and interventions that integrate cognitive and motor challenges (e.g. dance, dumb bell training) had small to moderate effects on memory or global cognition in people with MCI. We found Grade B evidence that 4+ months of creative art or story-telling groups in people with MCI; 6 months of resistance training in people with MCI and a two-year, dietary, exercise, cognitive training and social intervention in people with or without MCI had small, positive effects on global cognition. Effects for some intervention remained up to a year beyond facilitated sessions.
- Mild Cognitive Impairment
- Randomised Controlled Trial