Electricity outages in Ghana: Are contingent valuation estimates valid?

Anthony Amoah, Silvia Ferrini, Marije Schaafsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
29 Downloads (Pure)


African countries experience persistent and serious energy outages, but while multiple valuation studies provide estimates of the costs of electricity outages in high-income countries, evidence is scarce for lower- and middle-income countries. The few studies that assess the value of reliable energy supply rely on the contingent valuation method that is under wide scrutiny. This paper aims to provide new estimates of households' willingness to pay to reduce electricity outages for Ghana and contributes to the debate on the validity of contingent valuation results for energy reliability. Our results suggest that households are willing to pay GHS 67 ($17) per month for reliable electricity supply, equivalent to 7% of respondents’ income. The results of tests for hypothetical bias, WTP-WTA disparity and income effects suggest that the contingent valuation estimates from this study are robust and can support decision makers in prioritizing energy policies and investments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110996
JournalEnergy Policy
Early online date10 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • Contingent valuation
  • Electricity supply
  • Ghana
  • Hypothetical bias
  • Validity
  • WTA-WTP gap

Cite this