Electrochemical control of protein monolayers at indium tin oxide surfaces for the reagentless optical biosensing of nitric oxide

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Cytochrome c has been immobilized onto functionalized, optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes by covalent and electrostatic techniques. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the formation of a disulfide bond between N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate- (SPDP-) modified cytochrome c and SPDP-silanized ITO. Additionally, ITO electrodes have been modified with the bifunctional reagent 1,12-dodecanedicarboxylic acid (DDCA), resulting in formation of a carboxylic acid-terminated monolayer. Covalent protein attachment to the DDCA-functionalized ITO was achieved with the cross-linker 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. Electrostatic attachment of the protein involved ion-pair and hydrogen-bond interactions between the terminating carboxylic acid groups of the DDCA-functionalized ITO and the primary amine groups of the lysine residues of cytochrome c. The electrostatic interaction between the cytochrome c and the functionalized ITO resulted in greater rotational mobility of the protein at the electrode surface, leading to ca. 63% electroactivity, as compared to ca. 41% electroactivity for the covalently immobilized protein. The redox state of the electrostatically bound cytochrome c monolayers could be electrochemically switched between ferric and ferrous forms. Electrochemical control of the bound protein was used to regenerate the biosensing surface following binding of nitric oxide (NO). Ligation of NO with the cytochrome c was monitored by measurement of the change of absorbance intensity at 416 nm. Through application of a negative potential, the cytochrome c was reduced from the ferric to the ferrous form, which led to the removal of the ligated NO. Application of a positive potential regenerated the ferric cytochrome c, enabling multiple repeat measurements of NO. Such electrochemical control of proteins immobilized on transparent electrodes enables the optical biosensing of analyte targets without recourse to exogenous reagents.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1901-1908
Number of pages8
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2004

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