Electroactive microorganisms have attracted significant interest for the development of novel biotechnological systems of low ecological footprint. These can be used for the sustainable production of energy, bioremediation of metal-contaminated environments and production of added-value products. Currently, almost 100 microorganisms from the Bacterial and Archaeal domains are considered electroactive, given their ability to efficiently interact with electrodes in microbial electrochemical technologies. Cell-surface exposed conductive proteins are key players in the electron transfer between cells and electrodes. Interestingly, it seems that among the electroactive organisms identified so far, these cell-surface proteins fall into one of four groups. In this review, the different types of cell-surface conductive proteins found in electroactive organisms will be overviewed, focusing on their structural and functional properties.
- Extracellular electron transfer
- Cell-surface exposed conductive proteins
- Multiheme c-type cytochromes
- Electroactive bacteria
- Microbial electrochemical technologies