Bladder diseases affect millions of patients worldwide and compromise their quality of life with a substantial economic impact. The not fully understood aetiologies of bladder diseases limit the current diagnosis and therapeutic options to primarily symptomatic treatment. In addition, bladder targeted drug delivery is challenging due to its unique anatomical features and its natural physiological function of urine storage and frequent voiding. Therefore, current treatment options often fail to provide a highly effective, precisely targeted and long-lasting treatment. With the growing maturity of gene therapy, comprehensive studies are needed to provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning bladder diseases and help to identify novel gene therapeutic targets and biomarkers for treating bladder diseases. In this review, molecular mechanisms involved in pathology of bladder cancer, interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder syndrome are reviewed, with focus on establishing potential novel treatment options. Proposed novel therapies, including gene therapy combined with nanotechnology, localised drug delivery by nanoparticles, and probiotics, are discussed in regard to their safety profiles, efficacy, treatment lenght, precise targeting, and in comparison to conventional treatment methods.
- Bladder cancer
- Gene therapy
- Interstitial cystitis, Nanoparticles
- Overactive bladder