Energy supply security in the EU: Benchmarking diversity and dependence of primary energy

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We evaluate energy supply security in all the EU countries. For the first time a proxy indicators for diversity and concentration Shannon Wiener index and Herfindahl-Hirschman index and dependence metrics are used for the detailed primary energy fuel mix of all EU member states. The geographic coverage of this work allows for useful comparisons between countries and for a means of benchmarking against the indices. Overall, it is found that energy supply diversity in the EU has been significantly improved since 1990 by 14.2% (SWI) and 22.6% (HHI). We demonstrate the interrelations between dependence and diversity and the role of renewables on dependence and diversity. Renewable energy, particularly wind, solar and biomass has been the main driver for diversity growth and has a positive contribution to indigenous energy use; thus reducing energy import dependence. We argue that alongside renewable energy there exists a wide range of factors contributing to energy dependence and that renewable energy has had a positive contribution to almost all EU28 country's diversity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-476
Number of pages22
JournalApplied Energy
Early online date27 Jul 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • primary energy
  • EU
  • diversity
  • Energy security
  • dependence
  • benchmarking

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