Enhanced covalent p-phenylenediamine crosslinked graphene oxide membranes: towards superior contaminant removal from wastewaters and improved membrane reusability

Vepika Kandjou, Ana Perez Mas, Beatriz Acevedo Munoz, Miguel Hernaez Saenz De Zaitigui, Andrew Mayes, Sonia Melendi-Espina

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Abstract

The increasing depletion of freshwater necessitates the re-use and purification of wastewaters. Among the existing separation membrane materials, graphene oxide (GO) is a promising candidate, owing to its tunable physicochemical properties. However, the widening of GO membranes pore gap in aqueous environments is a major limitation. Crosslinking agents can be incorporated to alleviate this problem. This study describes a comparative analysis of uncrosslinked and p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) crosslinked GO membranes’ water purification performance. Dip-coating and dip-assisted layer-by-layer methods were used to fabricate the uncrosslinked and crosslinked membranes respectively. The covalent interaction between GO and PPD was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The excellent membrane topographical continuity and intactness was assessed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, while water contact angle measurements were undertaken to evaluate and confirm membrane hydrophilicity. The improvement impact of the crosslinker was manifested on the enhancement of the stability and performance of the membranes during nanofiltration tests of aqueous solutions of methylene blue in a homemade nanofiltration cell operated at 1 bar.
Original languageEnglish
Article number120840
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume380
Early online date28 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2019

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