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In lanthanide-based optical materials, control over the relevant operating characteristics–for example transmission wavelength, phase and quantum efficiency–is generally achieved through the modification of parameters such as dopant/host combination, chromophore concentration and lattice structure. An alternative avenue for the control of optical response is through the introduction of secondary, codoped chromophores. Here, such secondary centers act as mediators, commonly bridging the transfer of energy between primary absorbers of externally sourced optical input and other sites of frequency-converted emission. Utilizing theoretical models based on experimentally feasible, three-dimensional crystal lattice structures; a fully quantized theoretical framework provides insights into the locally modified mechanisms that can be implemented within such systems. This leads to a discussion of how such effects might be deployed to either enhance, or potentially diminish, the efficiency of frequency up-conversion.
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