Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data

Alexander Muravyev, Oleksandr Talavera, Dorothea Schäfer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

275 Citations (Scopus)


This paper examines whether financial institutions discriminate against entrepreneurs on the basis of gender. Using the cross-country Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS), we find some evidence that, compared to male-managed counterparts, female-managed firms are less likely to obtain a bank loan. In addition, our analysis suggests that female entrepreneurs are charged higher interest rates when loan applications are approved. There is also some evidence that the gender differences in access to financing vanish with the level of financial development, which is consistent with Becker-type discrimination. The results of our analysis are robust to a number of specification checks. Journal of Comparative Economics37 (2) (2009) 270–286.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)270-286
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Comparative Economics
Issue number2
Early online date9 Dec 2008
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • Entrepreneurship
  • Financial constraints
  • Gender
  • Discrimination

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