Estradiol-inducible AvrRps4 expression reveals distinct properties of TIR-NLR-mediated effector-triggered immunity

Bruno Pok Man Ngou, Hee-Kyung Ahn, Pingtao Ding, Amey Redkar, Hannah Brown, Yan Ma, Mark Youles, Laurence Tomlinson, Jonathan D. G. Jones

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28 Citations (Scopus)
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Plant nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) proteins play important roles in recognition of pathogen-derived effectors. However, the mechanism by which plant NLRs activate immunity is still largely unknown. The paired Arabidopsis NLRs RRS1-R and RPS4, that confer recognition of bacterial effectors AvrRps4 and PopP2, are well studied, but how the RRS1/RPS4 complex activates early immediate downstream responses upon effector detection is still poorly understood. To study RRS1/RPS4 responses without the influence of cell surface receptor immune pathways, we generated an Arabidopsis line with inducible expression of the effector AvrRps4. Induction does not lead to hypersensitive cell death response (HR) but can induce electrolyte leakage, which often correlates with plant cell death. Activation of RRS1 and RPS4 without pathogens cannot activate mitogen-associated protein kinase cascades, but still activates up-regulation of defence genes, and therefore resistance against bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2186-2197
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Experimental Botany
Issue number6
Early online date12 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2020


  • Cell death
  • Defence gene expression
  • Estradiol-inducible expression system
  • Golden Gate modular cloning
  • Hypersensitive response
  • MAP kinase
  • NLR activation
  • Plant innate immunity
  • Protein complex

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