Evaluation of outpatient service quality: What do patients and providers think?

Pouria Farrokhi, Aidin Aryankhesal, Rafat Bagherzadeh, Asgar Aghaei Hashjin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Healthcare service quality depends on the service process and interactions between customers and service providers. Therefore, this study aimed to assess service quality in outpatient clinics in hospitals from patients, employees, and managers' perspectives. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in six public teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2019. The study population consisted of 433 patients, 100 employees, and 15 managers. The standard SERVQUAL questionnaire was used to collect data. Nonparametric statistical analysis including Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were performed by using SPSS 23 software. Results: The highest and lowest gaps from the patients' perspective were related to the dimensions of responsiveness (−1.70) and empathy (−1.42), from the employees' perspective, was related to tangibility (−1.22) and empathy (−0.49) and finally from the managers' perspective was related to tangibility (−1.73) and responsiveness (−0.41) Moreover, the highest gap in service quality was related to the patients' and managers' perception of the responsiveness dimension (Gap = −1.04, t = −6.08, P-value <0.001). Conclusion: Managers are recommended to develop appropriate workforce training programs focusing on effective interactions and timely services. Also, an investment in physical environment and equipment is suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-403
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Healthcare Management
Issue number3
Early online date31 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Outpatient services
  • Patients
  • Providers
  • Service quality

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