DNA is fundamentally important for all cellular organisms due to its role as a store of hereditary genetic information. The precise and accurate regulation of gene transcription depends primarily on promoters, which vary significantly within and between genomes. Some promoters are rich in specific types of bases, while others have more varied, complex sequence characteristics. However, it is not only base sequence but also epigenetic modifications and altered DNA structure that regulate promoter activity. Significantly, many promoters across all organisms contain sequences that can form intrastrand hairpins (cruciforms) or four-stranded structures (G-quadruplex or i-motif). In this review we integrate recent studies on promoter regulation that highlight the importance of DNA structure in the evolutionary adaptation of promoter sequences.
- DNA base sequence
- DNA structure