TY - JOUR

T1 - Exact solutions for submerged von Kármán point vortex streets cotravelling with a wave on a linear shear current

AU - Keeler, Jack S.

AU - Crowdy, Darren G.

N1 - Funding information: J.S.K. acknowledges funding from the Leverhulme Trust, ECF-2021-017.
Data availability statement: The code that supports the findings of this study is openly available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.22128548.v3.

PY - 2023/8/25

Y1 - 2023/8/25

N2 - New exact solutions are presented to the problem of steadily travelling water waves with vorticity wherein a submerged von Kármán point vortex street cotravels with a wave on a linear shear current. Surface tension and gravity are ignored. The work generalizes an earlier study by Crowdy & Nelson (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 096601) who found analytical solutions for a single point vortex row cotravelling with a water wave in a linear shear current. The main theoretical tool is the Schwarz function of the wave, and the work builds on a novel framework set out recently by Crowdy (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 954, 2022, A47). Conformal mapping theory is used to construct Schwarz functions with the requisite properties and to parametrize the waveform. A two-parameter family of solutions is found by solving a pair of nonlinear algebraic equations. This system of equations has intriguing properties: indeed, it is degenerate, which radically reduces the number of possible solutions, although the space of physically admissible equilibria is still found to be rich and diverse. For inline vortex streets, where the two vortex rows are aligned vertically, there is generally a single physically admissible solution. However, for staggered streets, where the two vortex rows are offset horizontally, certain parameter regimes produce multiple solutions. An important outcome of the work is that while only degenerate von Kármán point vortex streets can exist in an unbounded simple shear current, a broad array of such equilibria is possible in a shear current beneath a cotravelling wave on a free surface.

AB - New exact solutions are presented to the problem of steadily travelling water waves with vorticity wherein a submerged von Kármán point vortex street cotravels with a wave on a linear shear current. Surface tension and gravity are ignored. The work generalizes an earlier study by Crowdy & Nelson (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 096601) who found analytical solutions for a single point vortex row cotravelling with a water wave in a linear shear current. The main theoretical tool is the Schwarz function of the wave, and the work builds on a novel framework set out recently by Crowdy (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 954, 2022, A47). Conformal mapping theory is used to construct Schwarz functions with the requisite properties and to parametrize the waveform. A two-parameter family of solutions is found by solving a pair of nonlinear algebraic equations. This system of equations has intriguing properties: indeed, it is degenerate, which radically reduces the number of possible solutions, although the space of physically admissible equilibria is still found to be rich and diverse. For inline vortex streets, where the two vortex rows are aligned vertically, there is generally a single physically admissible solution. However, for staggered streets, where the two vortex rows are offset horizontally, certain parameter regimes produce multiple solutions. An important outcome of the work is that while only degenerate von Kármán point vortex streets can exist in an unbounded simple shear current, a broad array of such equilibria is possible in a shear current beneath a cotravelling wave on a free surface.

KW - general fluid mechanics

KW - vortex interactions

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85168808179&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/jfm.2023.551

DO - 10.1017/jfm.2023.551

M3 - Article

VL - 969

JO - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

SN - 0022-1120

M1 - A5

ER -