Experience, social pressure and performance: The case of soccer officials

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16 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the relationship between experience, social pressure and performance of match officials (referees) in professional soccer. Using data from European Cup competitions, it is found that officials with more experience are marginally less biased towards the home side in the issuing of disciplinary sanctions. However, it is also the case that officials with greater levels of experience are just as likely to be influenced by social pressure as their less experienced counterparts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)883-886
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Economics Letters
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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