Methods: Baseline transcriptome profiles were measured in muscle biopsies collected from 53 young, 73 healthy older subjects and 61 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from these frail older subjects (31 samples) and healthy older subjects (41 samples) were collected after 6 months of progressive resistance-type exercise training. Frail older subjects trained twice per week and the healthy older subjects trained three times per week.
Results: At baseline genes related to mitochondrial function and energy metabolism were differentially expressed between older and young subjects, as well as between healthy and frail older subjects. 307 genes were differentially expressed after training in both groups. Training affected expression levels of genes related to extracellular matrix, glucose metabolism and vascularization. Expression of genes that were modulated by exercise training were indicative of muscle strength at baseline. Genes that strongly correlated with strength belonged to the protocadherin gamma gene cluster (r=-0.73).
Conclusions: Our data suggest significant remaining plasticity of ageing skeletal muscle to adapt to resistance-type exercise training. Some age-related changes in skeletal muscle gene expression appear to be partially reversed by prolonged resistance-type exercise training. The protocadherin gamma gene cluster may be related to muscle denervation and re-innervation in ageing muscle.
- skeletal muscle