Factors predicting incidence of post-operative delirium in older people following hip fracture surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Toby O Smith, Alethea Cooper, Guy Peryer, Richard Griffiths, Chris Fox, Jane Cross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


Objective: Delirium is one of the most common complications following hip fracture surgery in older people. This study identified pre- and peri-operative factors associated with the development of post-operative delirium following hip fracture surgery.

Methods: Published and unpublished literature were searched to identify all evidence reporting variables on patient characteristics, on-admission, intra-operative and post-operative management assessing incident delirium in older people following hip fracture surgery. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) of those who experienced delirium compared to those who did not were calculated for each variable. Evidence was assessed using the Downs and Black appraisal tool and interpreted using the GRADE approach.

Results: 6704 people (2090 people with post-operative delirium) from 32 studies were analysed. There was moderate evidence of nearly a two-times greater probability of post-operative delirium for those aged 80 years and over (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.87), whether patients lived in a care institution pre-admission (OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.79, 3.92), and a six-times greater probability of developing post-operative delirium with a pre-admission diagnosis of dementia (OR: 6.07, 95% CI: 4.84, 7.62). There was no association with intra-operative variables and probability of delirium.

Conclusion: Clinicians treating people with a hip fracture should be vigilant towards post-operative delirium if their patients are older, have pre-existing cognitive impairment and poorer overall general health. This is also the case for those who experience post-operative complications such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)386–396
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number4
Early online date17 Jan 2017
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017


  • Fracture neck of femur
  • Proximal femoral fracture
  • anaesthetic
  • surgical optimisation
  • orthogeriatric care
  • delirium

Cite this