Gammadelta T cells have a direct role in resolving the host immune response to infection by eliminating populations of activated macrophages. Macrophage reactivity resides within the Vgamma1/Vdelta6.3 subset of gammadelta T cells, which have the ability to kill activated macrophages following infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). However, it is not known how gammadelta T cell macrophage cytocidal activity is regulated, or what effector mechanisms gammadelta T cells use to kill activated macrophages. Using a macrophage-T cell coculture system in which peritoneal macrophages from naive or Lm-infected TCRdelta-/- mice were incubated with splenocytes from wild-type and Fas ligand (FasL)-deficient mice (gld), the ability of Vgamma1 T cells to bind macrophages was shown to be dependent upon Fas-FasL interactions. Combinations of anti-TCR and FasL Abs completely abolished binding to and killing of activated macrophages by Vgamma1 T cells. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that Fas and the TCR colocalized on Vgamma1 T cells at points of contact with macrophages. Collectively, these studies identify an accessory or coreceptor-like function for Fas-FasL that is essential for the interaction of Vgamma1 T cells with activated macrophages and their elimination during the resolution stage of pathogen-induced immune responses.