Finding Cross-Border Collaborative Centres in Biopharma Patent Networks: A Clustering Comparison Approach Based on Adjusted Mutual Information

Zhen Zhu, Yuan Gao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


The recent speedy development of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines has underlined the importance of cross-border patent collaboration. This paper uses the latest edition of the REGPAT database from the OECD and constructs the co-applicant patent networks for the fields of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. We identify the cross-border collaborative regional centres in these patent networks at NUTS3 level using a clustering comparison approach based on adjusted mutual information (AMI). In particular, we measure and compare the AMI scores of the clustering before and after arbitrarily removing cross-border links of a focal node against the default clustering defined by national borders. The region with the largest difference in AMI scores is identified as the most cross-border collaborative centre, hence the name of our measure, AMI gain. We find that our measure both correlates with and has advantages over the traditional measure betweenness centrality and a simple measure of foreign share.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComplex Networks and Their Applications X - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications COMPLEX NETWORKS 2021
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1, Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications COMPLEX NETWORKS 2021
EditorsRosa Maria Benito, Chantal Cherifi, Hocine Cherifi, Esteban Moro, Luis M. Rocha, Marta Sales-Pardo
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)78-3-030-93409-5
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-93408-8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Event10th International Conference on Complex Networks & their Applications - Polytechnic University of Madrid/online & in-person, Madrid, Spain
Duration: 30 Nov 20212 Dec 2021
Conference number: 10th

Publication series

NameStudies in Computational Intelligence
ISSN (Print)1860-949X
ISSN (Electronic)1860-9503


Conference10th International Conference on Complex Networks & their Applications
Abbreviated titleComplex Networks 2021
Internet address


  • patent networks
  • cross-border
  • adjusted mutual information
  • clustering comparison
  • Adjusted mutual information
  • Clustering comparison
  • Cross-border
  • Patent networks

Cite this