Flipping the classroom: Is it the type of flipping that adds value?

Robert Webb, Duncan Watson, Craig Shepherd, Steve Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Interest in the flipped classroom in higher education has burgeoned despite the literature revealing that the effects on assessment outcomes remain elusive. In this paper, we present the results of an empirical analysis designed to compare the impact on assessment outcomes of different approaches to the flipped classroom (didactic and non-didactic). Focusing on a cohort of Intermediate Economics students we investigated the influence of these approaches on their examination results by utilising an OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression and probit followed by quantile regression. Our analysis revealed small positive effects when students were exposed to the ‘non-didactic’ flipped classroom but no effect when pre-lecture materials were used didactically to mimic the material given in traditional lectures. This study demonstrates the need for further meta-analysis and longitudinal studies to investigate the relationship between different forms of the flipped classroom and student assessment outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1649-1663
Number of pages15
JournalStudies in Higher Education
Issue number8
Early online date17 Dec 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Flipped classroom
  • OLS
  • flipping
  • inverted classroom
  • probit

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