BACKGROUND. Broccoli consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in broccoli are dietary compounds that may mediate these health effects. Sulforaphane (SF, 4-methylsulphinylbutyl ITC) derives from heading broccoli (calabrese) and iberin (IB, 3-methylsulphinypropyl ITC) from sprouting broccoli. While there are many studies regarding the biological activity of SF, mainly undertaken with cancerous cells, there are few studies associated with IB.
METHODS. Primary epithelial and stromal cells were derived from benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue. Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 whole genome arrays were used to compare global gene expression between these cells, and to quantify changes in gene expression following exposure to physiologically appropriate concentrations of SF and IB. Ontology and pathway analyses were used to interpret results. Changes in expression of a subset of genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS. Global gene expression profiling identified epithelial and stromal-specific gene expression profiles. SF induced more changes in epithelial cells, whereas 113 was more effective in stromal cells. Although 113 and SF induced different changes in gene expression in both epithelial and stromal cells, these were associated with similar pathways, such as cell cycle and detoxification. Both ITCs increased expression of PLAGL1, a tumor suppressor gene, in stromal cells and suppressed expression of the putative tumor promoting genes IFITM1, CSPG2, and VIM in epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION. These data suggest that 113 and SF both alter genes associated with cancer prevention, and 113 should be investigated further as a potential chemopreventative agent. Prostate 69: 1411-1421, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
- prostate cancer
- benign prostatic hyperplasia