Genome-wide discovery of human splicing branchpoints

Tim R. Mercer, Michael B. Clark, Stacey B. Andersen, Marion E. Brunck, Wilfried Haerty, Joanna Crawford, Ryan J. Taft, Lars K. Nielsen, Marcel E. Dinger, John S. Mattick

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165 Citations (Scopus)
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During the splicing reaction, the 59 intron end is joined to the branchpoint nucleotide, selecting the next exon to incorporate into the mature RNA and forming an intron lariat, which is excised. Despite a critical role in gene splicing, the locations and features of human splicing branchpoints are largely unknown. We use exoribonuclease digestion and targeted RNA-sequencing to enrich for sequences that traverse the lariat junction, by split and inverted alignment, reveal the branchpoint. We identify 59,359 high-confidence human branchpoints in >10,000 genes, providing a first map of splicing branchpoints in the human genome. Branchpoints are predominantly adenosine, highly conserved, and closely distributed to the 3 ′ splice site. Analysis of human branchpoints reveals numerous novel features, including distinct features of branchpoints for alternatively spliced exons and a family of conserved sequence motifs overlapping branchpoints we term B-boxes, which exhibit maximal nucleotide diversity while maintaining interactions with the keto-rich U2 snRNA. Different B-box motifs exhibit divergent usage in vertebrate lineages and associate with other splicing elements and distinct intron-exon architectures, suggesting integration within a broader regulatory splicing code. Lastly, although branchpoints are refractory to common mutational processes and genetic variation, mutations occurring at branchpoint nucleotides are enriched for disease associations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290-303
Number of pages14
JournalGenome Research
Issue number2
Early online date5 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

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