Ginsenosides enhance P2X7-dependent cytokine secretion from LPS-primed rodent macrophages

Kshitija Dhuna, Ray Helliwell, Simone N. de Luca, Sarah J. Spencer, Leanne Stokes

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The activation of P2X7 is a well-known stimulus for the NLRP3-caspase 1 inflammasome and subsequent rapid IL-1β secretion from monocytes and macrophages. Here we show that positive allosteric modulators of P2X7, ginsenosides, can enhance the release of three important cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α from LPS-primed rodent macrophages using the J774 mouse macrophage cell line and primary rat peritoneal macrophages. We compared the immediate P2X7 responses in un-primed and LPS-primed macrophages and found no difference in calcium response amplitude or kinetics. These results suggest that under inflammatory conditions positive allosteric modulators are capable of increasing cytokine secretion at lower concentrations of ATP, thus boosting the initial pro-inflammatory signal. This may be important in the control of intracellular infections.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65–71
Number of pages7
JournalPurinergic Signalling
Early online date14 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • ATP
  • Cytokine
  • Ginsenoside
  • Macrophage
  • P2X7

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