Going 'off script': the influence of instrument constituencies on the Europeanisation of Turkish water policy

Burcin Demirbilek (Lead Author), Oscar Fitch-Roy, David Benson, Jenny Fairbrass

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The European Union (EU) has established a major role in directing policy change, both internally and beyond its borders: a phenomenon known as ‘Europeanisation’. This article examines the Europeanisation of water policy in Turkey in relation to implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Although some principles of EU water policy have been adopted in Turkey, the WFD has also been subject to significant domestic modification, prompting questions about how and why such patterns of partial implementation occur. In this respect, learning and socialisation within transnational ‘instrument constituencies’ (ICs) is shown to be an important explanatory factor. It follows that diffusion of the EU’s water policy and the WFD beyond its borders may be enhanced by promoting the capacity for instrument constituency learning (or the ‘cognitive environment’) in non-EU countries.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2
Pages (from-to)205-224
Number of pages20
JournalWater Alternatives
Issue number2
Early online date1 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Water Framework Directive; instrument constituencies; policy diffusion; Turkey; social learning; Europeanisation

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