Although work and family are undoubtedly important life domains, individuals are also active in other life roles which are also important to them (like pursuing personal interests). Building on identity theory and the resource perspective on work-home interface, we examined whether there is an indirect effect of work-self-conflict/facilitation on exhaustion and task performance over time through personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy and optimism). The sample was composed of 368 Dutch police officers. Results of the three-wave longitudinal study confirmed that work-self-conflict was related to lower levels of self-efficacy, whereas work-self-facilitation was related to improved optimism over time. In turn, self-efficacy was related to higher task performance, whereas optimism was related to diminished levels of exhaustion over time. Further analysis supported the negative, indirect effect of work-self-facilitation on exhaustion through optimism over time, and only a few reversed causal effects emerged. The study contributes to the literature on inter-role management by showing the role of personal resources in the process of conflict or facilitation over time.