Hyper-Rayleigh scattering in centrosymmetric systems

Mathew D. Williams, Jack S. Ford, David L. Andrews

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Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) is an incoherent mechanism for optical second harmonic generation. The frequency-doubled light that emerges from this mechanism is not emitted in a laser-like manner, in the forward direction; it is scattered in all directions. The underlying theory for this effect involves terms that are quadratic in the incident field and involves an even-order optical susceptibility (for a molecule, its associated hyperpolarizability). In consequence, HRS is often regarded as formally forbidden in centrosymmetric media. However, for the fundamental three-photon interaction, theory based on the standard electric dipole approximation, representable as E13, does not account for all experimental observations. The relevant results emerge upon extending the theory to include E12M1 and E12E2 contributions, incorporating one magnetic dipolar or electric quadrupolar interaction, respectively, to a consistent level of multipolar expansion. Both additional interactions require the deployment of higher orders in the multipole expansion, with the E12E2 interaction analogous in rank and parity to a four-wave susceptibility. To elicit the correct form of response from fluid or disordered media invites a tensor representation which does not oversimplify the molecular components, yet which can produce results to facilitate the interpretation of experimental observations. The detailed derivation in this work leads to results which are summarized for the following: perpendicular detection of polarization components both parallel and perpendicular to the pump radiation, leading to distinct polarization ratio results, as well as a reversal ratio for forward scattered circular polarizations. The results provide a route to handling data with direct physical interpretation, to enable the more sophisticated design of molecules with sought nonlinear optical properties.
Original languageEnglish
Article number124301
JournalThe Journal of Chemical Physics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2015

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