Identification of Avramr1 from Phytophthora infestans using long read and cDNA pathogen‐enrichment sequencing (PenSeq)

Xiao Lin, Tianqiao Song, Sebastian Fairhead, Kamil Witek, Agathe Jouet, Florian Jupe, Agnieszka I. Witek, Hari S. Karki, Vivianne G. A. A. Vleeshouwers, Ingo Hein, Jonathan D. G. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, significantly hampers potato production. Recently, a new Resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Rpi) gene, Rpi‐amr1, was cloned from a wild Solanum species, Solanum americanum. Identification of the corresponding recognized effector (Avirulence or Avr) genes from P. infestans is key to elucidating their naturally occurring sequence variation, which in turn informs the potential durability of the cognate late blight resistance. To identify the P. infestans effector recognized by Rpi‐amr1, we screened available RXLR effector libraries and used long read and cDNA pathogen‐enrichment sequencing (PenSeq) on four P. infestans isolates to explore the untested effectors. Using single‐molecule real‐time sequencing (SMRT) and cDNA PenSeq, we identified 47 highly expressed effectors from P. infestans, including PITG_07569, which triggers a highly specific cell death response when transiently coexpressed with Rpi‐amr1 in Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting that PITG_07569 is Avramr1. Here we demonstrate that long read and cDNA PenSeq enables the identification of full‐length RXLR effector families and their expression profile. This study has revealed key insights into the evolution and polymorphism of a complex RXLR effector family that is associated with the recognition by Rpi‐amr1.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1502-1512
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular Plant Pathology
Issue number11
Early online date15 Sep 2020
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Avramr1
  • PenSeq
  • Phytophthora infestans
  • RXLR effector
  • Rpi-amr1
  • late blight
  • oomycete

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