Identification of myocardial diffuse fibrosis by 11 heartbeat MOLLI T1 mapping: averaging to improve precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction

Vassilios S. Vassiliou, Katharina Wassilew, Donnie Cameron, Ee Ling Heng, Evangelia Nyktari, George Asimakopoulos, Anthony de Souza, Shivraman Giri, Iain Pearce, Andrew Jabbour, David Firmin, Michael Frenneaux, Peter Gatehouse, Dudley J. Pennell, Sanjay K Prasad

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Objectives: Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level.

Materials and methods: For assessment of T1 mapping precision, a cohort of 15 healthy volunteers underwent two CMR scans on separate days using an 11 heartbeat MOLLI with a 5(3)3 beat scheme to measure native T1 and a 4(1)3(1)2 beat post-contrast scheme to measure post-contrast T1, allowing calculation of partition coefficient and ECV. To assess correlation of T1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction.

Results: A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two mid ventricular level averaged T1 maps provided improved precision (Intraclass correlation 0.93 vs 0.84) and correlation with histology (R2 = 0.83 vs 0.36) for diffuse fibrosis compared to a single mid-ventricular level alone. ECV was more precise and correlated better than native T1 mapping.

Conclusion: T1 mapping sequences with repeated averaging could be considered for applications of 11 heartbeat MOLLI, especially when small changes in native T1/ECV might affect clinical management.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101–113
Number of pages13
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date12 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018


  • T1 mapping
  • correlation with collagen volume fraction
  • precision
  • extracellular volume
  • gadolinium

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