Identification of specific interactions that drive ligand-induced closure in five enzymes with classic domain movements

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In order to better understand ligand-induced closure in domain enzymes, open unliganded X-ray structures and closed liganded X-ray structures have been studied in five enzymes: adenylate kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, citrate synthase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. A sequential model of ligand binding and domain closure was used to test the hypothesis that the ligand actively drives closure from an open conformation. The analysis supports the assumption that each enzyme has a dedicated binding domain to which the ligand binds first and a closing domain. In every case, a small number of residues are identified to interact with the ligand to initiate and drive domain closure. In all cases except adenylate kinase, the backbone of residues located in an interdomain-bending region (hinge site) is identified to interact with the ligand to aid in driving closure. In adenylate kinase, the side-chain of a residue located directly adjacent to a bending region drives closure. It is thought that by binding near a hinge site the ligand is able to get within interaction range of residues when the enzyme is in the open conformation. Interdomain bending regions not involved in inducing closure are involved in control, helping to determine the location of the hinge axis. Similarities have been discovered between aspartate aminotransferase and citrate synthase that only come to light in the context of their dynamical behaviour in response to binding their substrate. Similarity also exists between liver alcohol dehydrogenase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase whereby groups on NAD and ATP, respectively, mimic the backbone of a single amino acid residue in a process where a three residue segment located at the terminus of a ß-sheet, moves to form hydrogen bonds with the mimic that resemble those found in a parallel ß-sheet. This interaction helps to drive domain closure in a process that has analogy to protein folding.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1001-1021
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jun 2004

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