Impact of personalized feedback: The case of coaching and learning change plans

Jocelyn M. Lockyer, Heather A. Armson, Karen D. Könings, Marygrace Zetkulic, Joan Sargeant

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter describes an empirically derived model for impactful feedback discussions. The R2C2 model has four phases: Educators build the relationship (R) between educator and learner, gain learner reactions (R) to the feedback which can be used to determine the potential for change and development, and explore and ensure a mutual understanding of the content (C) in order to coach for change (C) to co-create achievable learning change plans that can be monitored to ensure learner progress. Two mechanisms in particular, coaching and learning change plans, support learner acceptance and use of the feedback. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future application and research in health professions education and higher education.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Impact of Feedback in Higher Education
Subtitle of host publicationImproving Assessment Outcomes for Learners
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9783030251123
ISBN (Print)9783030251116
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes

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