Impact of Renal Impairment on Beta-Blocker Efficacy in Patients With Heart Failure

Dipak Kotecha, Simrat K. Gill, Marcus D. Flather, Jane Holmes, Milton Packer, Giuseppe Rosano, Michael Böhm, John J. V. Mcmurray, John Wikstrand, Stefan D. Anker, Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen, Luis Manzano, Thomas G. Von Lueder, Alan S. Rigby, Bert Andersson, John Kjekshus, Hans Wedel, Frank Ruschitzka, John G. F Cleland, Kevin DammanJosep Redon, Andrew J. S. Coats

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Abstract

Background Moderate and moderately severe renal impairment are common in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but whether beta-blockers are effective is unclear, leading to underuse of life-saving therapy. Objectives This study sought to investigate patient prognosis and the efficacy of beta-blockers according to renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods Analysis of 16,740 individual patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% from 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was performed. The authors report all-cause mortality on an intention-to-treat basis, adjusted for baseline covariates and stratified by heart rhythm. Results Median eGFR at baseline was 63 (interquartile range: 50 to 77) ml/min/1.73 m2; 4,584 patients (27.4%) had eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 2,286 (13.7%) 30 to 44 ml/min/1.73 m2. Over a median follow-up of 1.3 years, eGFR was independently associated with mortality, with a 12% higher risk of death for every 10 ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10% to 15%; p < 0.001). In 13,861 patients in sinus rhythm, beta-blockers reduced mortality versus placebo; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.73 for eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.86; p < 0.001) and 0.71 for eGFR 30 to 44 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.87; p = 0.001). The authors observed no deterioration in renal function over time in patients with moderate or moderately severe renal impairment, no difference in adverse events comparing beta-blockers with placebo, and higher mortality in patients with worsening renal function on follow-up. Due to exclusion criteria, there were insufficient patients with severe renal dysfunction (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) to draw conclusions. In 2,879 patients with atrial fibrillation, there was no reduction in mortality with beta-blockers at any level of eGFR. Conclusions Patients with heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and sinus rhythm should receive beta-blocker therapy even with moderate or moderately severe renal dysfunction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2893-2904
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume74
Issue number23
Early online date2 Dec 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2019

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