In-the-moment feedback and coaching: Improving R2C2 for a new context

Jocelyn Lockyer, Heather Armson, Karen D. Könings, Rachelle C. W. Lee-Krueger, Amanda Roze des Ordons, Subha Ramani, Jessica Trier, Mary Grace Zetkulic, Joan Sargeant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The R2C2, a 4-phase feedback and coaching model, builds relationships, explores reactions, determines content and coaches for change, and facilitates formal feedback conversations between clinical supervisors/preceptors and residents. Formal discussions about performance are typically based on collated information from daily encounter sheets, objective structured clinical examinations, multisource feedback, and other data. This model has not been studied in settings where brief feedback and coaching conversations occur immediately after a specific clinical experience. Objective: We explored how supervisors adapt the R2C2 model for in-the-moment feedback and coaching and developed a guide for its use in this context. Methods: Eleven purposefully selected supervisors were interviewed in 2018 to explore where they used the R2C2 model, how they adapted it for in-the-moment conversations, and phrases used corresponding to each phase that could guide design of a new R2C2 in-the-moment model. Results: Participants readily adapted the model to varied feedback situations; each of the 4 phases were relevant for conversations. Phase-specific phrases that could enable effective coaching conversations in a limited amount of time were identified. Data facilitated a revision of the original R2C2 model for in-the-moment feedback and coaching conversations and design of an accompanying trifold brochure to enable its effective use. Conclusions: The R2C2 in-the-moment model offers a systematic approach to feedback and coaching that builds on the original model, yet addresses time constraints and the need for an iterative conversation between the reaction and content phases. The model enables supervisors to coach and co-create an action plan with residents to improve performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-35
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Graduate Medical Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020

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