Inclusive voting practices: lessons for theory, praxis, and the future research agenda

Toby S. James, Holly Ann Garnett

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Inclusive voting practices have been defined in this special issue to refer to policy instruments which can reduce turnout inequality between groups and mitigate other inequalities within the electoral process. This concluding article reflects on the lessons learnt from the empirical studies about (a) how citizens come to be excluded at the ballot box; (b) which electoral processes are effective at bringing about greater inclusion; (c) what the wider effects of inclusive voting practices are; and (d) why such policies instruments not undertaken by the state. It argues that there are major lessons for the theorizing of democracy, as well as policy and practice in elections worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-294
Number of pages7
JournalPolicy Studies
Issue number2-3
Early online date28 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Democracy
  • democratic backsliding
  • democratization
  • electoral management
  • electoral participation
  • voter turnout

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