The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and patterns of resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food products purchased in Navarra, northern Spain. A total of 174 samples of fish and chicken were analyzed from September 2015 to September 2016, including raw and ready-to-eat products: trout (n = 25), salmon (n = 28), panga (n = 13), chicken nuggets and chicken scalopes (n = 32), sushi (n = 31) and sliced cooked poultry (n = 45). Cefpodoxime-resistant strains were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar and further phenotypic (antimicrobial study on MicroScan© NM37 panel) and genotypic characterization (multiplex PCR, sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing, MLST) was performed to confirm and characterize ESBL producers. Raw chicken and sushi have been determined as the most risky products regarding transmission of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (occurrence 53.1% and 19.4%, respectively), while sliced cooked poultry products appear to be a safe product in this aspect. With regard to raw fish, prevalence in salmon was lower (3.6%) than in trout and panga (16.0%). Ninety-eight per cent of ESBL isolates (n = 50) show multidrug-resistant profiles, highlighting the high resistances against quinolones and tetracyclines observed in chicken isolates, as well as against ertapenem and chloramphenicol in sushi strains. Predominant β-lactamase type was SHV-12 (50.1%), followed by TEM-type (24.5%) and CTX-M (20.8%). In addition, CTX-M type was only detected in chicken products. The phylogenetic study showed the prevalence of groups A (35%), F (25%) and B1 (15%), usually related to nonvirulent strains. MLST E. coli isolates (n = 20) were grouped into 5 clonal complexes (CC) and 15 sequence types (ST), showing high clonal diversity. ST117 was the prevalent sequence type, while the human pathogen ST131 was not detected in this study. The high prevalence of ESBL-producing multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae detected in products of widespread consumption such as chicken and sushi, increases the concern regarding human exposure to superbugs and encourages the need to improve surveillance of this public health issue.