Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) comprises a group of closely related human and animal pathogens that account for a large proportion of all Salmonella infections globally. The epidemiological record of S. Typhimurium in Europe is characterized by successive waves of dominant clones, each prevailing for approximately 10–15 years before replacement. Succession of epidemic clones may represent a moving target for interventions aimed at controlling the spread and impact of this pathogen on human and animal health. Here, we investigate the relationship of phage sensitivity and population structure of S. Typhimurium using data from the Anderson phage typing scheme. We observed greater resistance to phage predation of epidemic clones circulating in livestock over the past decades compared to variants with a restricted host range implicating increased resistance to phage in the emergence of epidemic clones of particular importance to human health. Emergence of monophasic S. Typhimurium ST34, the most recent dominant multidrug-resistant clone, was accompanied by increased resistance to phage predation during clonal expansion, in part by the acquisition of the mTmII prophage that may have contributed to the fitness of the strains that replaced ancestors lacking this prophage.