Infectious bronchitis virus generates spherules from zippered endoplasmic reticulum membranes

Helena J Maier, Philippa C. Hawes, Eleanor M. Cottam, Judith Mantell, Paul Verkade, Paul Monaghan, Tom Wileman, Paul Britton

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79 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Replication of positive-sense RNA viruses is associated with the rearrangement of cellular membranes. Previous work on the infection of tissue culture cell lines with the betacoronaviruses mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) showed that they generate double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted membranes as part of a reticular membrane network. Here we describe a detailed study of the membrane rearrangements induced by the avian gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in a mammalian cell line but also in primary avian cells and in epithelial cells of ex vivo tracheal organ cultures. In all cell types, structures novel to IBV infection were identified that we have termed zippered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and spherules. Zippered ER lacked luminal space, suggesting zippering of ER cisternae, while spherules appeared as uniform invaginations of zippered ER. Electron tomography showed that IBV-induced spherules are tethered to the zippered ER and that there is a channel connecting the interior of the spherule with the cytoplasm, a feature thought to be necessary for sites of RNA synthesis but not seen previously for membrane rearrangements induced by coronaviruses. We also identified DMVs in IBV-infected cells that were observed as single individual DMVs or were connected to the ER via their outer membrane but not to the zippered ER. Interestingly, IBV-induced spherules strongly resemble confirmed sites of RNA synthesis for alphaviruses, nodaviruses, and bromoviruses, which may indicate similar strategies of IBV and these diverse viruses for the assembly of RNA replication complexes
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00801-13
JournalmBIO
Volume4
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jan 2013

Keywords

  • MOUSE HEPATITIS-VIRUS
  • CORONAVIRUS RNA-SYNTHESIS
  • TRACHEAL ORGAN-CULTURES
  • SEMLIKI-FOREST-VIRUS
  • REPLICATION COMPLEX
  • ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION
  • ELECTRON-MICROSCOPE
  • ARBOVIRUS INFECTION
  • SARS-CORONAVIRUS
  • CELLS

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