Initial psychometric testing and validation of the Patient Participation in Pressure Injury Prevention scale

Wendy Chaboyer (Lead Author), Emma Harbeck, Tracey Bucknall, Elizabeth McInnes, Lukman Thalib, Jennifer Whitty, Marianne Wallis, Brigid Gillespie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Aims: The aim of this study was to develop the Patient Participation in Pressure Injury Prevention (PPPIP) scale and undertake initial testing of some of its psychometric properties.

Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend patient involvement in pressure injury prevention. There is some evidence that patients are willing to participate in this activity but there are currently no instruments to measure this participation.

Design: This methodological study used data collected as part of a cluster randomised trial to modify and test the PPPIP scale.

Methods: A sample of 688 of patients with complete PPPIP scale data was used. A stratified random subsample, (Subsample A) was created and the remainder became Subsample B. Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha reliability were undertaken in Subsample A. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha reliability were undertaken in Subsample B. Data collection occurred between June, 2014 and May, 2015.

Results: In Subsample A (n = 320), inter-item correlations, item total correlations met the acceptance criteria and an exploratory factor analysis identified a one factor solution. In subsample B (n = 368) the confirmatory factor analysis supported this one factor. In both subsamples the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.86.

Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of acceptable reliability and validity of the PPPIP scale in two subsamples of hospitalised patients who have limited mobility. It may be used in research and quality improvement activities. As a better conceptual understanding of patient participation emerges, the PPPIP scale may require refinement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2237–2247
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number9
Early online date2 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2017


  • Pressure ulcers
  • Pressure injury prevention
  • Pressure ulcer prevention
  • Nurses
  • Nursing sensitive patient indicators
  • Patient participation
  • Psychometric testing
  • Instrument development
  • Patient perspectives
  • Patient outcomes

Cite this