Whether individuals with insulin resistance (IR) but without criteria for diabetes exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity is unclear; addressing this question could guide research for new therapeutics. We investigated 248 participants without diabetes from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) to determine whether impaired mitochondrial capacity is associated with prediabetes, IR, and duration and severity of hyperglycemia exposure. Mitochondrial capacity was assessed as the postexercise phosphocreatine recovery time constant (τPCr) by (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with higher τPCr values reflecting reduced capacity. Prediabetes was defined using the American Diabetes Association criteria from fasting and 2-h glucose measurements. IR and sensitivity were calculated using HOMA-IR and Matsuda indices. The duration and severity of hyperglycemia exposure were estimated as the number of years from prediabetes onset and the average oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h glucose measurement over previous BLSA visits. Covariates included age, sex, body composition, physical activity, and other confounders. Higher likelihood of prediabetes, higher HOMA-IR, and lower Matsuda index were associated with longer τPCr. Among 205 participants with previous OGTT data, greater severity and longer duration of hyperglycemia were independently associated with longer τPC In conclusion, in individuals without diabetes a more impaired mitochondrial capacity is associated with greater IR and a higher likelihood of prediabetes.