Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand members and their associated TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamilies have many diverse physiological roles. TNF is thought to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of a range of diseases including refractory asthma, sepsis, ankylosing spondylitis, lupus, type II diabetes, multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. The recent continued expansion of the novel anti-TNF therapeutic agents (etanercept and infliximab) has seen major improvements in the treatment of some inflammatory-based human diseases including notably rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease, with other conditions currently being trialled using anti-TNF agents. The cellular signalling machinery used by TNFRs to achieve their many cellular responses are discussed, as is the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor signalling mechanisms. TNF is known to have many actions throughout the body including effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, with many anti-gonadotrophic effects including a role in the development of endometriosis. These interactions between TNF, GnRH and gonadotrophs are discussed.