Internal structure and stability of vortices in a dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

Magnus O. Borgh, Justin Lovegrove, Janne Ruostekoski

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Abstract

We demonstrate how dipolar interactions can have pronounced effects on the structure of vortices in atomic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and illustrate generic physical principles that apply across dipolar spinor systems. We then find and analyze the cores of singular vortices with non-Abelian charges in the point-group symmetry of a spin-3 52Cr condensate. Using a simpler model system, we analyze the underlying dipolar physics and show how a characteristic length scale arising from the magnetic dipolar coupling interacts with the hierarchy of healing lengths of the s-wave scattering and leads to simple criteria for the core structure: When the interactions both energetically favor the ground-state spin condition, such as in the spin-1 ferromagnetic phase, the size of singular vortices is restricted to the shorter spin-dependent healing length (s-wave or dipolar). Conversely, when the interactions compete (e.g., in the spin-1 polar phase), we find that the core of a singular vortex is enlarged by increasing dipolar coupling. We further demonstrate how the spin alignment arising from the interaction anisotropy is manifest in the appearance of a ground-state spin-vortex line that is oriented perpendicularly to the condensate axis of rotation, as well as in potentially observable internal core spin textures. We also explain how it leads to an interaction-dependent angular momentum in nonsingular vortices as a result of competition with rotation-induced spin ordering. When the anisotropy is modified by a strong magnetic field, we show how it gives rise to a symmetry-breaking deformation of a vortex core into a spin-domain wall.
Original languageEnglish
Article number053601
JournalPhysical Review A
Volume95
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

Keywords

  • Topological Defects
  • Bose-Einstein Condensates
  • Dipolar Interactions
  • Spinor Condensates

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